NTPC and its sub contractors have undertaken a vast UXO clearance program since the beginning of preliminary construction activities in 2004. The program covers not only the Project infrastructure areas, but also the resettlement areas and related agricultural zones, access roads (including the main road between Thakhek and Nakai), route of transmission lines, and various residential areas.
Much of the Nam Theun 2 project area lies on or adjacent to areas that formed parts of the Ho Chi Minh Trail, the Vietnamese military supply line that was the target of many American bombing missions in the second Indochina war. From the beginning of the project to September 2007, 1,750 ha searched and 2,200 UXO items were found and destroyed in the Nakai resettlement area, at a cost of US$2.1 m. In the construction area, 5,000 ha searched and 18,450 UXO items found and destroyed at a cost of approximately US$14.5 m. Work has continued since then and will continue to do so: a full-time UXO response team patrols the resettled villages on the Nakai Plateau, with villagers reporting all suspected UXO sightings via a post box system. Since April 2006 this response team has destroyed over 3,000 items of UXO.